The journal authors remind us that 'biofilm-associated infections depend on host attributes, such as the presence of indwelling medical devices' (i.e. catheters) 'or underlying disease, as well as bacterial factors'.

They go on to say that an understanding of the physical factors that affect biofilm formation within the body is essential, and summarise by suggesting novel strategies to manage and control biofilms once they have been characterised and identified. 

They propose strategies to include novel applications such as antibiotics. 

Ignoring issues that surround antibiotic-resistance for a moment, it is worth pointing out that Camstent is currently developing a surface coating that resists bacteria colonisation and inhibits biofilm development so my question is "why manage biofilm when perhaps, we can prevent it forming in the first place?"